We’ve posted a new video in the NGA LTER YouTube channel. In it, some of our graduate students (and one post-doc) describe what inspires them about working on NGA LTER science. Through these student interviews, you get glimpses of our fieldwork and what makes life aboard R/V Sikuliaq so special.
Michele Hoffman Trotter and her team collected these interviews while sailing on our Summer 2021 Sikuliaq cruise. They were also able to film the nets, instruments, and water samples that we use to investigate the NGA ecosystem. We played the video for our Site Reviewers in August, and now you get to see it too. Enjoy!
Massive, early spring bloom in the northern Gulf of Alaska, April-May 2021
Some of the highest chlorophyll concentrations recorded during the 24-year occupation of the Seward Line were seen in late April – early May 2021, in association with a massive spring bloom of diatoms. As an illustration, satellite imagery from NASA’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) shows the bloom developing rapidly between April 18th and 25th.
Field sampling provided details
Our field sampling from R/V Sikuliaq coincided with this bloom. We found relatively cool ocean temperatures and, in places, fresher conditions than usual, as shown below for the GAK line. High chlorophyll was mostly confined to the upper 20 m of the water column (as seen in the fluorescence section below). Likely, this bloom was a response to intermittent sunny days and light winds. Late April chlorophyll-a concentrations reached almost 30 μg liter-1 on the inner MID line. In contrast, in some springs the peak concentrations are only one-tenth this level. Surface macronutrients (nitrate and silicic acid) had been drawn down to levels usually observed in summer (<1 μM liter-1).
Microscopy conducted on board showed a diverse mixture of chain diatoms and colonial Phaeocystis comprising the bloom phytoplankton community. Concurrently, late-stage juveniles of the spring dominant Neocalanus copepod community had large amounts of lipid stores. At some stations, these copepods were already beginning their seasonal descent to deep diapause depths. Conversely, seabird abundances were some of the lowest ever observed during the >20-year time series, and few marine mammals were sighted.
The early, intense bloom of large, lipid-rich phytoplankton bodes well for survival and growth of krill and larval fish in 2021.
For further information contact Russ Hopcroft (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Suzanne Strom (email@example.com)
The Northern Gulf of Alaska Long Term Ecological Research (NGA LTER) project invites Alaska Native undergraduate students to participate in our interdisciplinary project during 2021.
Timing options for student involvement:
Spring and Summer 2021
Summer 2021 only
Summer and Fall 2021
Spring and Fall 2021
Any of the first three options include an opportunity to participate in a research expedition (dates to be determined as sea activities may be subject to quarantines, personnel reductions, and other restrictions due to COVID-19).
NGA LTER is one site within the national LTER network. Our research team investigates the features, mechanisms, and processes that drive NGA ecosystem production and foster its resilience. Scientists conduct ship-based observations and experiments, do research in land-based laboratories, run computer models of the ocean, and communicate findings to students and the public through education and outreach partners.
We seek a Alaska Native undergraduate student with interest in the Northern Gulf of Alaska to work with our University of Alaska Fairbanks team. Student research will integrate with work currently being done on the NGA LTER ecosystem. The time period of this REU position could includes our summer expedition aboard R/V Sikuliaq, so participation in ship-board research activities is possible, as is work that fosters partnerships with other disciplines. Research themes include biogeochemical cycling, microplankton ecology, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, zooplankton ecology and molecular studies. For more information on potential research projects, please see the potential projects and mentors listing or contact any mentors directly to discuss other possible projects.
This REU opportunity is not limited strictly to oceanographic research, but can be a project that promotes partnership between marine science and other disciplines. Projects can be related to fields including but not limited to visual arts, music, education, engineering, communication. Participation could include joining a research expedition to the Northern Gulf of Alaska onboard R/V Sikuliaq, or it could be carried out fully at the UAF campus. The student will present their work to the UAF LTER community when the project is completed.
Stipend of $5760 for a position that requires 480 total working hours.
Additional funds may be available to offset housing and transportation costs.
Alaska Native heritage
Preference will be given to applicants whose resume indicate:
Desire to work in a team setting.
An interest in science.
Enrolled in the UA system.
Upper division status in a bachelor’s program.
How to Apply
Applicants must be citizens or permanent residents of the U.S. and its possessions and must be enrolled in a 2- or 4-year institution of higher education. Students who have received a bachelor’s degree before the start date of the program are ineligible.
To apply, email each of the following:
The cover letter should include a brief description of your project and your interest in the Northern Gulf of Alaska. Contact mentors directly to design a project, or see 2021 REU projects and mentorsfor more information.
Make sure your resume includes:
Contact information: email address and telephone number
Previous work and academic experience
Anticipated graduation date
Unofficial transcripts are acceptable.
One letter of reference
This email should be sent directly from the person writing the letter, with the applicant’s name included in the subject line.
Application materials may be submitted by email to:
Ideas for REU projects give an overview of current research topics at the NGA LTER, and include aspects of biological, chemical and physical oceanography in the northern Gulf of Alaska. Projects involve retrospective analysis of decades worth of data, or cutting-edge sampling aboard R/V Sikuliaq. The following are project ideas submitted by NGA LTER investigators. REU students might work on one of them, or use them as inspiration to design their own research project. At the end of the summer, students will present their findings.
The marine algae that form the base of the marine food web require essential nutrients to grow. For some micronutrients (e.g. iron and manganese) the seafloor is thought to be a potentially important source, but quantifying this seafloor source is difficult. Naturally-occurring radium isotopes have a distinct seafloor source, and once they enter the water column they decay at well-defined rates. Therefore, by detecting radium alongside micronutrients in surface waters, we may be able to calculate the rate at which seafloor-derived nutrients are transported into surface waters, and if we do that, we’ll add an important piece to the complex puzzle that is the Northern Gulf of Alaska biogeochemical cycle.
During the 2021 summer LTER cruise on R/V Sikuliaq, the REU will involve collecting water samples, extracting radium isotopes from samples onto fibers, and measure radioactivity of the fibers using our onboard alpha counter. After the cruise, the student will combine their radioisotope data with physical and biological information to understand the role of the seafloor in altering the physics, chemistry, and biology of the overlying waters.
While the amount of radioactivity we measure is completely harmless, we hope the ‘fallout’ of our results make a real impact!
My work broadly encompasses the phytoplankton, micrograzers, and organic carbon cycle in Gulf of Alaska waters. Projects at sea could include experiments to test the salinity tolerance of different micrograzers, or field sampling to look at the occurrence of mixotrophy (photosynthesis and grazing by the same single-celled organisms). If we are unable to go to sea, data analysis projects are possible, including comparison of remote sensing (satellite) and field measurements of phytoplankton biomass and production.
Prince William Sound is a fjord-rimmed estuary adjacent to the Gulf of Alaska. A shallow sill separates the deep waters within the fjord from the greater Gulf; the deep waters provide sheltered habitat for over-wintering zooplankton. Since before the Exxon Valdez oil spill, physical oceanographic measurements such as temperature and salinity have been taken in Prince William Sound. The REU student will assemble these data from multiple sources, and will compute monthly means and time-series of anomalies. With the data we can investigate: Do the deep waters in PWS get replaced every year? Are there trends in the temperature and salinity properties? How much do the deep subsurface properties vary from one year to the next? The student will gain experience analyzing physical oceanographic data, and will code algorithms in the MATLAB computational environment.
Investigating nutrient cycling in the Northern Gulf of Alaska (NGA)
Along with light, nutrients are essential resources for phytoplankton (unicellular primary producers). In the NGA, the availability of macronutrients (i.e., nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid) and micronutrients (e.g., iron, manganese, copper) influence the phytoplankton community structure, which in turn influences higher trophic level communities. Projects at sea could include dissolution experiments from various marine particles, or collection of aerosol samples to investigate the solubility of aerosol-derived micronutrients. If we are unable to go to sea, projects could include analysis of previously collected samples to determine manganese and aluminum content.
NGA-LTER scientists collect millions of zooplankton during our net tows in the Gulf of Alaska. These must be identified into species and counted to order to understand the Gulf’s community structure. But that is tedious work. Therefore, we are teaching computers to do it for us. First, a watertight, flat-bed scanner (ZooScan) creates a digital image of a plankton sample from a net tow. Then software isolates individual images and sorts them into taxonomic groups (or particles and detritus). To teach the software how to do the sorting, scientists create a training set and then double-check the output. The REU student will gain lab experience as they scan and sort samples, and then will have the opportunity to look for differences in communities across stations and cruises.
2. Telling sisters apart
The Gulf of Alaska zooplankton contains many examples of closely related “sibling species”. These species occupy similar niches in the environment, but are slightly different in ways that may create advantages under changing conditions. It is likely that climate change acts by tipping the scales on which sister species are more successful. Unfortunately, zooplankton sampling in previous years did not always differentiate between these sisters. To gain knowledge about how things have changed in the NGA over the years, we hope a detail-oriented REU student will look back through our archived samples. They will help establish the shifting ratio of two keystone copepod species during the first decade of our time series, while they gain experience in microscope work and taxonomic classification. Moreover, we are also open to other small projects that might utilize our historical samples.
Zooplankton species that inhabit the world’s oceans are often very difficult to tell apart just by looking at their morphological features under a microscope. In the Gulf of Alaska there are species that look like identical twins, yet their genetic makeup is different, a term referred to as cryptic speciation. DNA barcoding is a tool that allows researchers to identify organisms to the species level and to tell these “twins” apart by analyzing the differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. This project would allow an REU student to focus on DNA barcoding one or more species from various groups of zooplankton of their choice. This student would get to work in both the zooplankton and genetics labs at UAF. They will work with specimens from samples previously collected from the Gulf of Alaska and get the opportunity to collect and pick their organism(s) of choice at sea during the summer LTER cruise. The student will gain experience with extracting DNA from zooplankton and running PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to target and amplify the COI gene. They will also learn how to analyze DNA sequence data and to determine if a species exhibits cryptic speciation. Any sequences generated by the student will be incorporated into a publicly available zooplankton DNA sequence database that is used by researchers worldwide for molecular-based zooplankton studies. No prior knowledge of genetics by the student is needed for their project to be successful.
Although the NGA LTER has a successful record of fieldwork during the COVID-19 pandemic, future research activities may be subject to quarantines, personnel reductions, and other restrictions. We anticipate that conditions allow for broad, in-person REU involvement in 2021. If not, we will pursue other avenues to maintain our 2021 REU program, including remote options.
The Northern Gulf of Alaska Long Term Ecological Research (NGA LTER) project invites undergraduate students to participate in our interdisciplinary oceanographic research this summer. This cohort of REU students will join our team from June 15 to August 20, 2021. The application period closes February 15, 2021; applicants will be notified in mid-March.
The NGA LTER is one site within the national LTER network. Our research team investigates the features, mechanisms, and processes that support NGA ecosystem production and foster its resilience. Scientists conduct field work, including ship-based experiments, run computer models of the ocean, and communicate findings to students and the public through education and outreach partners.
We seek highly motivated undergraduates with interest in marine science, biology, chemistry, and/or physics to work with scientists through the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Student research will integrate with work currently being done on the NGA LTER ecosystem. The time period of this REU position includes our summer cruise aboard R/V Sikuliaq, so participation in ship-board research activities is possible, as is historical time series or retroactive data analysis. Oceanographic research themes include biogeochemical cycling, microplankton ecology, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, zooplankton ecology and molecular studies. For more information on potential research projects, please see potential projects and mentors, listed below.
Stipend of $5760 for a full-time position (40 hours per week) over 10 weeks.
Additional funds may be available to offset housing and transportation costs.
College level background in biology, chemistry, physics, or marine science.
The ability to carefully follow instructions.
Desire to work in a team setting.
Upper division status in a Bachelor of Science program.
An interest in continuing scientific research upon graduation.
How to Apply
Applicants must be citizens or permanent residents of the U.S. and its possessions and must be enrolled in a 2- or 4-year institution of higher education. Students who have received a bachelor’s degree before the start date of the program are ineligible. Members of groups under-represented in earth and environmental science are strongly encouraged to apply.
During the summer and fall 2019 NGA LTER cruises, Kira collected diapausing female copepods. She examined lipid content and cell division within the reproductive structures. Through Kira’s work, she discovered that Neocalanus flemingeri can stop diapause and begin creating egg cells within just twenty-four hours after being collected.
Annie Kandel is a master’s student through the College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. For Annie’s thesis, titled “Spatial and temporal variability of dissolved aluminum and manganese in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Alaska,” Annie investigated the seasonal variability of dissolved aluminum and dissolved manganese in our study area. Annie derived data from the spring, summer, and fall NGA LTER cruises in 2018 and 2019.
Annie’s work showed that dissolved aluminum and manganese are trace metals that can be used as tracers of freshwater input in the NGA. This is because in this region, their main source is from rivers. Values for both metals are highest inshore, closer to the mouth of the Copper River, and decrease moving offshore.
The Oceanography Department in UAF’s College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences is seeking a post doctoral scholar to work with Gulf Watch Alaska. The postdoc will contribute to existing data synthesis efforts and lead new analyses.
Gulf Watch Alaska
Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) is the long-term ecosystem monitoring program of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. GWA partners with the Northern Gulf of Alaska Long-Term Ecological Research (NGA LTER) project to monitor the northern Gulf of Alaska ecosystem. In fact, NGA LTER is an example of an GWA project that has existed for multiple decades with resulting long-term physical and biological time series for the Gulf of Alaska.
GWA investigates three main ecosystem components:
Environmental Drivers (physical and biological oceanography),
Nearshore Ecosystems (intertidal and coastal food web), and
Pelagic Ecosystems (forage fish and predators of the pelagic food web).
GWA Science Synthesis
GWA supports annual field sampling efforts. However, it is also conducting cross-component science syntheses that focus on the effects of the recent northeast Pacific marine heatwave.
The postdoctoral scholar for this project will contribute as lead author and as co-author to GWA program synthesis products. They will collaborate with their UAF faculty advisor, GWA investigators, and the GWA Science Coordinator and ecosystem component leads. Together, they will design and conduct studies related to the phenology, magnitude, spatial variability, and recovery time of biological responses to and physical drivers of the marine heatwave. Additionally, other biophysical mechanisms of population regulation in the Gulf of Alaska may also be addressed.
Ecosystem Indicators and Management
These synthesis activities will support management actions by informing the ecosystem-based fisheries management of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council. For instance, the postdoctoral scholar will work with the GWA Science Coordinator to update existing and develop new ecosystem indicators to be used in NOAA’s Gulf of Alaska Ecosystem Status reports and Ecosystem and Socioeconomic Profiles.
In addition, the post-doctoral scholar will also provide technical review and editing of manuscripts, reports, and work plans for the GWA Program Management Team. They will also present results of their research at GWA meetings, scientific conferences, and to the public.
To learn more about this position and to apply, please visit Careers at UA. The deadline is November 30, 2020.
Despite challenges and restrictions due to COVID-19, the NGA LTER was able to complete their 2020 field operations. These operations included four planned research cruises, and redeployment of several moorings.
To enable this, we shortened cruise lengths, reduced the number of participating scientist, and transferred on cruise to a different vessel. In the end, the NGA team pulled off the core Gulf of Alaska sampling and so maintained the long-term time series datasets.
Fall Cruise Update
During the first 9 days in September, twelve scientists from the University of Alaska (UAF), Western Washington University (WWU) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) sailed aboard the R/V Sikuliaq. Originally, the fall cruise was scheduled to take place on the USFWS vessel R/V Tiglax. Unfortunately, the pandemic forced the cancellation of all 2020 Tiglax sailings. Postponement of other research cruises on the Sikuliaq schedule and a slight shift of fall LTER sailing dates opened a window of availability for a fall expedition.
Fall sampling occurred in Prince William Sound and along the Seward Line. This marks the 100th occupation of the Seward Line using a (nearly) modern suite of vertically profiling sondes! The Seward Line is a 150 nautical mile transect that starts at the mouth of Resurrection Bay and extends offshore into oceanic waters. The first occupation of the Seward Line was in December, 1970. Over the first few years, samples were taken only at discrete depth levels using Nansen bottles and reversing thermometers.
A history of the sampling along the Seward Line includes:
First, sampling at Seward Line stations began with a cruise in 1970. Bottles collected water samples from depth.
Using profiling dataloggers, 17 full occupations of the Seward Line occurred from 1974 to 1997.
Then from 1997-2004, sampling expanded to 6-7 cruises per year as part of the U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) program.
From 2005 to 2017, cruises occurred in May and September on the Seward Line and in Prince William Sound. The consortium of funding partners include NOAA, the North Pacific Research Board (NPRB), the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS), and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council (EVOS) via the Gulf Watch Alaska program.
Most recently, in 2018 the consortium expanded via funding from NSF’s LTER network. The expansion includes spring, summer and fall expeditions and the addition of survey stations east and west of the Seward Line.