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Early Work

These publications describe the early work done along the Seward Line. They summarize the basic oceanographic environment and important fisheries resources.

map with currents
The flow of the Alaska Coastal Current and subarctic gyre are indicated as are several geographic place names. (After Reed and Schumacher, 1986).


Albers, W. D., & Anderson, P. J. (1985). Diet of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, and predation on the northern pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in Pavlof Bay, Alaska. Fishery Bulletin, 83(4), 601–610.
Blau, S. F. (1986). Recent declines of red king crab (Paralithodes camstchatica) populations and reproductive conditions around the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. In G. S. Jamieson & N. Bourne (Eds.), North Pacific Workshop on Stock Assessment and Management of Invertebrates (pp. 360–369).
Brodeur, R. D., & Ware, D. M. (1992). Long-term variability in zooplankton biomass in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Oceanography, 1(1), 32–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.1992.tb00023.x
Francis, R. C., & Hare, S. R. (1994). Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the North-east Pacific: a case for historical science. Fisheries Oceanography, 3(4), 279–291. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.1994.tb00105.x
Hatch, S. A., & Sanger, G. A. (1992). Puffins as samplers of juvenile pollock and other forage fish in the Gulf of Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 80(1), 1–14. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24826540
Hollowed, A. B., Wilson, C. W., Brown, E., & Megrey, B. A. (1994). Walleye Pollock. In Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Plan Team (Ed.), Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the 1995 Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Fishery. North Pacific Fisheries Managment Council.
Merrick, R. L., Loughlin, T. R., & Calkins, D. G. (1987). Decline in abundance of the northern sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, in Alaska, 1956–86. U. S. Fishery Bulletin, 85, 351–365.
OCSEAP Staff. (1986). Marine Fisheries: Resources and Environments. In D. W. Hood & S. T. Zimmerman (Eds.), The Gulf of Alaska, Physical Environment and Biological Resources, OCS Study MMS 86-0095 (pp. 417–459). MMS/NOAA.
Parker, K. S., Royer, Thomas C., & Deriso, R. B. (1995). High-latitude climate forcing and tidal mixing by 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and low-frequency recrutiment trends in Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). In R. J. Beamish (Ed.), Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations (pp. 449–459).
Royer, T. C. (1996). Interdecadal hydrographic variability in the Gulf of Alaska, 1970-1995. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 77, F368.
Royer, T. C. (1993). High‐latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6‐year nodal tide. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 98(C3), 4639–4644. https://doi.org/10.1029/92JC02750
Royer, T. C., & Weingartner, T. J. (1999). Coastal Hydrographic Responses in the Northern Gulf of Alaska to the 1997-98 ENSO Event. In H. J. Freeland, W. T. Peterson, & A. Tyler (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Science Board Symposium on the Impacts of the 1997/98 El Nino Event on the North Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas. North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES). http://www.pices.int/publications/scientific_reports/Report10/default.aspx
Royer, T. C., Hansen, D. V., & Pashinski, D. J. (1979). Coastal Flow in the Northern Gulf of Alaska as Observed by Dynamic Topography and Satellite-Tracked Drogued Drift Buoys. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9(4), 785–801. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0785:CFITNG>2.0.CO;2
Royer, T. C., Grosch, C. E., & Mysak, L. A. (2001). Interdecadal variability of Northeast Pacific coastal freshwater and its implications on biological productivity. Progress in Oceanography, 49, 95–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00017-9
Strom, S. L., Brainard, M. A., Holmes, J. L., & Olson, M. B. (2001). Phytoplankton blooms are strongly impacted by microzooplankton grazing in coastal North Pacific waters. Marine Biology, 138(2), 355–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270000461
Thompson, G. G., & Zenger, H. H. (1994). Pacific Cod. In Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Plan Team (Ed.), Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the 1995 Gulf of Alaska Groundfish Fishery. North Pacific Fisheries Managment Council.
Trenberth, K. E., & Hurrell, J. W. (1994). Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dynamics, 9(6), 303–319. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00204745